CDF Rogers, Loughborough University; and DN Chapman, Nottingham University. This paper was first published in GE’s October 1994 edition.
This paper describes the complete ground displacement patterns in sand caused by pipejacking, a form of tunnelling in which the permanent lining, lengths of pipe, is jacked forwards en bloc behind the tunnelling shield. Model tests were conducted on a jacking operation split along its longitudinal axis such that ground movements could be recorded photographically through glass in both the longitudinal and rpendicular planes. Both open and closed shields were used at different cover depths in different sands. The application of the resulting data to field applications in other soil types is discussed.