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Technical Paper: Ultimate Limit State design to Eurocode 7 using numerical methods Part II: proposed design procedure and application

Colin Smith & Matthew Gilbert, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield.

This paper was first published in GE’s November 2011 issue. Part I can be found in GE’s October 2011 issue.


In the UK, assessment of the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) is to be carried out using Eurocode 7 Design Approach 1. In most cases this involves two calculations, one which primarily involves an “action factor” approach (Design Approach 1, Combination 1), the other which primarily involves a “material factor” approach (Design Approach 1, Combination 2). In Part I of this paper a general methodology for undertaking ULS design using numerical methods for both material factor and action factor (including action/resistance factor) approaches was presented.

In Part II, the practical application of this methodology will be described as part of a proposed general purpose “problem agnostic” design procedure. In particular the challenges of applying partial factors in the presence of potential non-linear relationships within the problem will be addressed (for example a bearing resistance derived from a frictional material property).


Part I can be found in GE’s October 2011 issue.

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