David P McKittrick, BEng, MSCE, MASCE, and Maurice Darbin, Eng, ENPC. This paper was first published in GE’s March 1979 edition.
Over 2200 Reinforced Earth structures totalling nearly 1 350 000m2 of wall surface (Table I) have now been completed in a wide range of climates and environmental settings in 28 countries.
Structures have been designed for, and subjected to, a variety of loading conditions including static, dynamic and seismic loads, thermal stresses, and hydraulic forces from tidal action, rapid draw-down, and wave impact. Structures built include retaining walls, buttresses to stabilise landslides, bridge abutments, foundation slabs, sea walls, dams, crude oil and cryogenic liquid containment dykes, sedimentation basins, and ore storage and transfer facilities.